Today is Thursday June 20, 2019


Physical Therapy Associates ~ Archives  


Rod Forms

Observation Rod forms, or rod-shaped bacteria are called bacilli. Some species have tapered ends (fusiform bacilli) or are shaped like long threads (filamentous bacilli) or spirals (spirochetes, spirilla). These microorganisms appear as motile rods when individual bud cells combine to form club-like ends. They contain developing spores and can project filaments, which make them motile and toxic organism states. Explanation As with any kind of infection, the quantity is important. The rod forms will manifest when L-forms are in great…




L-Form Bacteria

Observation L-form is a bacteria infested area in the blood that appears to have a transparent butterfly wing background with black dots clustered on it that don’t move. These must be distinguished from chylous (fat particles) which are smaller and moving. Explanation Some bacteria may mutate or change because of extreme nutritional conditions to form a cell wall-less form or L-forms. This phenomenon is observed in both gram positive and gram-negative species. These forms may result from partial or complete…




Fungal Forms

Observation The appearance of white puffy clumps may indicate the presence of yeast or fungus in the body. Many microscopists have called the white round puffy forms as seen in the pictures above YEAST. While yeast may not be present in the blood, researchers have conducted antibody studies in blood with these forms present and the anti-body tests have definitively read positive for CANDIDA ALBICANS/YEAST. Based on research these forms found in the blood could indicate that yeast or fungal…



Did you know that a problem with normal sleep patterns known as insomnia can often be caused by a pinched nerve at the first vertebra of the spine?  Did you know that by correcting a pinched nerve at vertebra number one, many of our patients have noticed tremendous improvements in their nightly sleep?   If you know of someone who is suffering from sleep disorders such as insomnia, ask for an evaluation. You could truly help to improve someone’s life….





Observation An Acanthocyte is an irregularly spiculated red blood cell of normal or slightly reduced size. It will appear as a “bottle cap” with 3 to 12 spicules of varying lengths along the periphery of the cell membrane. The acanthocyte differs from other poikilocytes with spicules (echinocytes or burr cells) in that its projections are fewer in number and vary considerably in width and length. Explanation Acanthocytosis is encountered in two clinical situations: severe hepatocellular disease and abetalipoprotenemia. Although morphologically…



Observation The ovalocyte is an elliptical red blood cell that is shaped like an egg (oval shaped). It is also called an elliptocyte. Explanation Ovalocytes are most abundant in hereditary elliptocytosis, in which the majority of the cells are ellipitical. Ovalocytes are seen in normal persons’ blood, but number less that 10 percent of the cells. They are more common, however, in iron deficiency anemia, myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia, megaloblastic anemias, and sickle cell anemia. In some studies it was…





Observation In normal blood, the RBCs are uniform in size. The average red blood cell is 7.2 microns. A macrocyte is an abnormally large erythrocyte—from 10 to 12 microns in diameter. Typically, all dimensions of the cell are: increased volume, diameter, and thickness. Be careful not to confuse the RBCs as microcytes (smaller than normal RBCs) With Macrocytes will you most likely have a few large cells with the larger numbers normal RBCs. With microcytes you will see a few…


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