Today is Thursday June 20, 2019


Physical Therapy Associates ~ Archives  


Neutrophil Viability

Observation White blood cells, or Leukocytes, are one of the body’s primary defenses against infections. They have no hemoglobin and, unlike red blood cells, they can move about under their own power. The white blood cells appear as granular cells, which are round to slightly amorphous in shape. A distinct nucleus should be visible within the cytoplasm of the cell and the cell diameter may vary from approximately the same size as the surrounding red blood cells to about three…





Observation Echinocytes are red blood cells, which have lost their characteristic shape and have become rough and thorny in appearance. Dying red blood cells should not be more than one percent. This is considered normal. Echinocytes may be differentiated from acanthocytes by the regularity of the surface spicules. Explanation Echinocytes are spiculated RBCs. The term crenation is also used to refer to cells of this type. The projections of the cell membrane may be sharp or blunt, are usually numerous,…



Observation Poikilocytes are erythrocytes with abnormal shape. Some poikilocytes have fairly specific diagnostic significance, while other forms are very non-specific. Wherever possible, poikilocytes should be identified as to the specific shape changes that are present, e.g. acanthocyte, echinocytes, etc. However, in some situations, there are so many red cell shapes that the generic term “poikilocytosis” suffices and provides the same information as identifying each red cell shape individually. Explanation Poikilocytes (red blood cells with abnormal shape) have an increased tendency…




Uric Acid Crystals

Observation Uric acid crystals appear as broken glass and as needle-shaped crystals. These crystals trigger an immune response that produces intense local inflammation with severe pain, tenderness and swelling Explanation Uric acid is a byproduct of our natural chemical processes when we break down food or build up body tissues. The accumulation of uric acid can occur in two ways: Either our body produces too much of it, or more commonly, our kidneys do not eliminate enough uric acid. Too…





Observation Spicules are fibrous (fibrinogen) needles in the serum. They appear as straight, hair-like formations that look like pick-up sticks in the plasma fluid. Waiting too long of a time span from touching the cover of the glass to the sample and transporting or covering it on the slide may create the spicle effect. It is important to take the sample and cover it quickly to minimize exposure to the air. Explanation Spicules are composed of protein substances produced in…




Red Crystals

Observation Red crystals may appear red, dark yellow, or orange in color. These are red or orange crystalline formations, which are often seen in the protoplast. The red color is due to actinomycin, an antibiotic generated from the various species of streptomyces. Explanation When red crystals show up in the blood, clients will frequently have positive bowel toxemia, such as bacteria count in the bowel, which produce their own wastes. The wastes products from such bacteria are getting put back…





Observation Monocytes are the largest cell type seen in blood smears, and constitute 5 to 8% of total leukocytes. Their nuclei are not multilobular like granulocytes, but may be deeply indented or U-shaped, with reticular-appearing chromatin. The cytoplasm of Monocytes contains numerous lysosomal granules, which give it a uniform grayish-blue “ground-glass” appearance. Monocytes eventually leave the bloodstream and become tissue macrophages, which are responsible for removal of debris as well as defense against certain types of invaders such as fungi…




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